If you have read our blogs and elsewhere on the Internet, terpenes are often mentioned. They are relatively less talked about and written about than tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
As more research is conducted, more and more attention is being paid to them and their potential benefits. It is becoming clear that terpenes are an important factor in understanding how Cannabis and CBD oil products can affect human health.
David Watson, known for his association with the hybrid variety Skunk # 1, was one of the first to emphasize the role of aromatic terpenes in their modifying effect on THC. Terpenes or terpenoids are compounds that give the Cannabis plant a unique scent. THC and other cannabinoids have no odor, so the convincing aroma of Cannabis depends on which terpenes predominate. It is a combination of terpenoids and THC that gives each strain a special aroma and effect.
So what are terpenes?
Terpenes are volatile aromatic molecules that evaporate easily and are easily smelled in the nose. It turns out that terpenes are healthy for humans as well as plants.
Terpenes are thus organic compounds found in many plants and are a key component of natural essential oils. For plants such as the Cannabis plant, they impart different aromas and taste characteristics, while also consuming various unique benefits.
Terpenes are oily compounds released by the glandular trichomas of the Cannabis plant. Terpenes and THC share a common biochemical precursor, geranyl pyrophosphate, which is converted to cannabinoids and terpenoids that saturate plant inflorescences.
Scientists have identified and characterized the molecular structure of about 20,000 terpenes, the largest category of plant chemicals.
About 200 terpenes have been found in the Cannabis plant, but only a few of these odiferous oily substances appear enough to be noticeable or supposedly nasal. These include monoterpenes, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes, which are characterized by 5-carbon molecules called isoprene, structural features of all terpenoid compounds, number of repeating units. Cannabis-containing terpenes have given the plant long-lasting, evolutionary benefits. Sharp terpenoid oils repel insects and animals; others eliminate fungi.
Various researchers have emphasized the pharmacological importance of terpenes or terpenoids, which form the basis of aromatherapy, a popular holistic healing method. In the world of Cannabis and CBD oils, the terpene profile of any given Cannabis plant helps to distinguish different strains. The terpene composition of each plant affects its effect, taste and aroma.
But unlike THC and other plant cannabinoids that are found nowhere but in the Cannabis plant, terpenes are ubiquitous throughout the natural world. It is produced by countless plant species, terpenes are common in fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and other botanical products. Terpenes are also common ingredients in the human diet and are generally recognized as safe by the Worlds Food and Drug Administration.
Common terpenes found in Cannabis and CBD oil.
The more Cannabis is researched, the more exciting it becomes! So far, more than 200 terpenes have been detected in this single plant, each of which adds nuance to different strains of Cannabis.
In order to simplify the product range and offer more user-specific products, attempts have been made to categorize these different terpenes according to their potential benefits. For example, some strains may contain terpenes, which are known to have a more relaxing effect, and may in turn be recommended for patients suffering from excessive stress and anxiety.
When it comes to CBD oil, some of the most common terpenes found in Cannabis plants are beta-caryophyllene, limonene, pinene, myrcene and linalool.
Beta-caryophyllene is a terpene found in a variety of plants, including oregano, leafy greens, and some strains of Cannabis. According to a study, it has gastrointestinal protective properties and may be useful in the treatment of certain ulcers. It has also shown promising potential as an anti-inflammatory agent due to its ability to bind directly to CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the human body.
Limonene is found in many citrus plants, such as lemons, limes and oranges, as well as in the cannabis plant. This is what gives these plants and fruits a lemon, citrus scent.
Limonene is thought to have both antifungal and antibacterial properties and is thought to be the compound responsible for Cannabis’ ability to protect against insects.
A study has shown that limonene has the potential to reduce stress.
Pinene is a terpene found in a variety of plants, including Cannabis, pine, rosemary, dill and basil. Terpene pinene is further subdivided into Alpha and Beta categories, the former emitting an aroma reminiscent of pine needles and the latter smelling of rosemary or parsley.
Pinene has potential use as a bronchodilator in people suffering from asthma, and studies have shown that it is an effective antiseptic.
Myrcene is one of the most prominent terpenes found in the Cannabis plant, which determines whether it is classified as an Indica or Sativa strain.
Researchers have found that myrcene contains many potential, useful properties such as:
– Painkiller (analgesic);
– Anti-mutagen (protects DNA from pathological mutations).
Linalool is one of the main components that creates the lavender aroma. This is what potentially gives lavender, CBD and Cannabis products a stress-relieving reputation by offering anti-anxiety, antidepressant and sedative effects.
Extraction of all plants usually involves CBD, THC and more than 400 other important trace elements. Many of these compounds interact synergistically to create what scientists call the “entourage effect,” which increases the therapeutic benefits of the individual components of the plant – so the medicinal effects of the whole plant are greater than we can imagine.
CBD and terpenes act in a symbiosis, commonly referred to as the ‘entourage effect’, a phenomenon that allows a full range of CBD products derived from the entire Cannabis plant to produce and offer greater benefits than products made from CBD isolate alone. The theory is that all the different terpenes and cannabinoids in the Cannabis plant work together to enhance each other’s effects, creating an overall stronger and more valuable end result or effect.
One example of CBD and terpenes that offers the greatest possible benefit through an ‘entourage effect’ is in the treatment of acne. Both terpene linalool and limonene have antiseptic and anti-acne properties. Combining these two terpenes with CBD, which is also a powerful anti-inflammatory, suggests a faster treatment for acne.
Terpenes and CBD buffer the subtle psychoactivity of THC. The interaction between cannabinoids and terpenoids potentiates the beneficial effects of Cannabis while reducing THC-induced anxiety.
There are studies that CBD oil reduces anxiety. If you combine CBD with a relaxing terpene such as myrcene, caryophyllene, or limonene, you may experience stronger benefits than if you use CBD isolate.
What else can terpenes do?
Some terpenoids dilate capillaries in the lungs, making it easier for inhaled THC to enter the bloodstream. Nerolidol, a sedative terpenoid, is a skin penetration agent that increases permeability and potentially facilitates the absorption of cannabinoids when used topically for pain or skin conditions. Terpenoids and cannabinoids both increase blood flow, improve cortical activity, and kill respiratory pathogens, including MSRAs, antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have claimed the lives of tens of thousands of Americans in recent years, but many more around the world. Dr. Russo’s article reports that the interaction between cannabinoids and terpenoids “can create synergies for the treatment of pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fungal and bacterial infections.”
It turns out that terpenes are healthy for humans as well as plants. A report by Dr. Ethan Russo in the September 2011 British Journal of Pharmacology discussed the broad therapeutic properties of terpenoids, which are usually lacking only in “CBD-containing” products.
For example, beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in the essential oil of black pepper, oregano and other edible plants, as well as in various strains of Cannabis and many green, leafy vegetables. It is gut protective, well treats certain ulcers, and is promising as a therapeutic compound for inflammation and autoimmune disorders, as it binds directly to a peripheral cannabinoid receptor known as “CB2”.
Over time, researchers continue to research and develop combinations of terpene and CBD that can offer the greatest possible benefits, one can only imagine the potential. Products tailored to the individual needs of the patient or customer could be in the very near future.
And remember – your nose knows best: choose the Cannabis strain you like!
Please, read our blog: Plants and foods that affect the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS).
The information on the internet about CBD products and their use will be ambiguous, so we always recommend reading safe and reliable sources. We also use websites related to the Cannabis industry, research and education to prepare information.
The content of this site is for informational purposes only. We are not medical experts and this should not be interpreted as medical advice. Be sure to consult your doctor before undergoing CBD or other treatment.
The chemistry of every human body and brain is unique, so the use of CBD to improve mental as well as physical health does not guarantee results. However, many GWEEPRODUCTS CBD oil users have included it into their daily routine as one of the therapies for improving mental, physical health and quality of life.
References: cbdoilreview.org; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; semanticscholar.org; projectcbd.org
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